When considering arguments, Socrates suggests, one ought only to take heed of those that seem right upon reflection. It would be wrong for Socrates to abandon the arguments he propounded in the past simply because his life is now in danger. If he is to change his behavior now, it should be for reasons other than his impending death. Crito agrees with Socrates that not all opinions are of equal value--that some are sound and some are flawed--and that one should follow the opinions of the wise, which are sound, and not of the foolish, which are flawed.
References and Further Reading 1. On a law conception of ethics, conformity with the virtues requires obeying the divine law. A divine law requires the existence of God, as the divine lawgiver. Since we have given up belief in God, we should also give up the moral understanding that rests on such belief, and engage in moral philosophy without using such terms.
For Anscombe, this meant that we should abandon talk of morality as law, and instead focus on morality as virtue. Alan Donagan argues against these conclusions. First, he rejects her claim that we can only treat morality as a system of law if we also presuppose the existence of a divine lawgiver.
Second, Donagan contends that neither must we abandon law-based conceptions of morality for an Aristotelian virtue ethic. Given this, if we assume that human reason is at least in principle adequate for directing our lives, then the substance of divine law that is relevant to human life can be appreciated with human reason, apart from any reference to a divine being.
Moreover, according to Donagan, even if we conceive of morality as Aristotle did, namely, as a matter of virtue, it is quite natural to think that each virtue has as its counterpart some moral rule or precept.
And if we can apprehend the relevant moral virtue via human reason, then we can also apprehend the relevant moral law by that same reason.
Given the foregoing points raised by Anscombe and Donagan, a divine command theorist might opt for a conception of morality as virtue, as law, or both. Before looking at some possible advantages of Divine Command Theory, it will be helpful to clarify further the content of the view.
Edward Wierenga points out that there are many ways to conceive of the connection between God and morality.
A strong version of Divine Command Theory includes the claim that moral statements x is obligatory are defined in terms of theological statements x is commanded by God. At the other end of the spectrum is the view that the commands of God are coextensive with the demands of morality.
Wierenga opts for a view that lies between these strong and weak versions of Divine Command Theory. In what follows, I will, following Wierenga, take Divine Command Theory to include the following claims: According to Kant, we must believe that God exists because the requirements of morality are too much for us to bear.
We must believe that there is a God who will help us satisfy the demands of the moral law. With such a belief, we have the hope that we will be able to live moral lives. However, if there is a God and an afterlife where the righteous are rewarded with happiness and justice obtains, this problem goes away.
That is, being moral does not guarantee happiness, so we must believe in a God who will reward the morally righteous with happiness.
Kant does not employ the concept of moral faith as an argument for Divine Command Theory, but a contemporary advocate could argue along Kantian lines that these advantages do accrue to this view of morality.
Another possible advantage of Divine Command Theory is that it provides an objective metaphysical foundation for morality. For those committed to the existence of objective moral truths, such truths seem to fit well within a theistic framework. That is, if the origin of the universe is a personal moral being, then the existence of objective moral truths are at home, so to speak, in the universe.
By contrast, if the origin of the universe is non-moral, then the existence of such truths becomes philosophically perplexing, because it is unclear how moral properties can come into existence via non-moral origins.
Given the metaphysical insight that ex nihilo, nihilo fit, the resulting claim is that out of the non-moral, nothing moral comes. Objective moral properties stick out due to a lack of naturalness of fit in an entirely naturalistic universe.
This perspective assumes that objective moral properties exist, which is of course highly controversial. Not only does Divine Command Theory provide a metaphysical basis for morality, but according to many it also gives us a good answer to the question, why be moral?
William Lane Craig argues that this is an advantage of a view of ethics that is grounded in God. On theism, we are held accountable for our actions by God.
Those who do evil will be punished, and those who live morally upstanding lives will be vindicated and even rewarded. Good, in the end, triumphs over evil. Justice will win out.
Moreover, on a theistic view of ethics, we have a reason to act in ways that run counter to our self-interest, because such actions of self-sacrifice have deep significance and merit within a theistic framework. On Divine Command Theory it is therefore rational to sacrifice my own well-being for the well-being of my children, my friends, and even complete strangers, because God approves of and even commands such acts of self-sacrifice.
An important objection to the foregoing points is that there is something inadequate about a punishment and reward orientation of moral motivation.Start studying Plato- Apology-Crito-death scene.
Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Crito agrees with Socrates that not all opinions are of equal value--that some are sound and some are flawed--and that one should follow the opinions of the wise, which are .
Crito agrees with Socrates that not all opinions are of equal value--that some are sound and some are flawed--and that one should follow the opinions of the wise, which are sound, and not of the foolish, which are flawed. The opinions of the wise in any matter come from experts in those matters.
Divine Command Theory. Philosophers both past and present have sought to defend theories of ethics that are grounded in a theistic framework. Roughly, Divine Command Theory is the view that morality is somehow dependent upon God, and that moral obligation consists in obedience to God’s kaja-net.com Command Theory includes the claim that morality is ultimately based on the .
Fulfillment by Amazon (FBA) is a service we offer sellers that lets them store their products in Amazon's fulfillment centers, and we directly pack, ship, and provide customer service for these products. Crito is one of the "jailhouse dialogues," coming in dramatic sequence after the Apology and before the Phaedo.
Assumption of Socrates’ Innocence Discussing Crito, w e will assume that Socrates' conviction and sentence were unjust.