Meaning, Components and Methods Article shared by: All the nations are always engaged in the process of fulfilling or securing the goals of their national interests.
To engage in a war rulers needed to justify the action in these contexts. The practice is first seen as being employed by France under the direction of its Chief Minister Cardinal Richelieu in the Thirty Years' War when it intervened on the Protestant side, despite its own Catholicismto block the increasing power of the Catholic Holy Roman Emperor.
At Richelieu's prompting, Jean de Silhon defended the concept of reason of state as "a mean between what conscience permits and affairs require. It is a form of reason "born of the calculation and the ruse of men" and makes of the state "a knowing machine, a work of reason"; the state ceases to be derived from the divine order and is henceforth subject to its own particular necessities.
Mercantilism can be seen as the economic justification of the aggressive pursuit of the national interest. A foreign policy geared towards pursuing the national interest is the foundation of the realist school of international relations. The realist school reached its greatest heights at the Congress of Vienna with the practice of the balance of powers, which amounted to balancing the national interest of several great and lesser powers.
Metternich was celebrated as the principal artist and theoretician of this balancing but he was simply doing a more or less clean copy of what his predecessor Kaunitz had already done by reversing so many of the traditional Habsburg alliances and building international relations anew on the basis of national interest instead of religion or tradition.
These notions became much criticized after the bloody debacle of the First World Warand some sought to replace the concept of the balance of power with the idea of collective securitywhereby all members of the League of Nations would "consider an attack upon one as an attack upon all," thus deterring the use of violence for ever more.
The League of Nations did not work, partially because the United States refused to join and partially because, in practice, nations did not always find it "in the national interest" to deter each other from the use of force.
The events of World War II along with World War Iled to a rebirth of Realist and then Neo-realist thought, as international relations theorists re-emphasized the role of power in global governance.
Many IR theorists blamed the weakness of the League of Nations for its idealism contrasted with Realism and ineffectiveness at preventing war, even as they blamed mercantilist beggar thy neighbor policies for the creation of fascist states in Germany and Italy.
With hegemonic stability theorythe concept of the U. Relationship with the rule of law[ edit ] The majority of the jurists consider that the national interest is incompatible with the rule of law. This obvious lack of interest is due to a deliberate epistemological choice - a form of positivism applied to legal science; and as a result legal science affirms its autonomy regarding other social sciences while constituting with exactness its own object - law - in order to describe it.
In doing so it implies deterministic causes which have an influence on its descriptive function. This method which puts aside state reason is not without any consequence: A fundamental dynamic in modern constitutionalism, "the seizure of the political phenomenon by law" is all the more remarkable when it claims a scientific value, thus a neutrality aiming at preventing all objection.
This convergence of legal science and constitutionalism has the tautological character of a rhetorical discourse in which law is simultaneously the subject and the object of the discourse on law. Having as a basis state reason, it allows a reflexion on the legitimacy of power and authority of modern Western societies; this in connexion with the representations which make it and which it makes "state reason and public law.
As considerable disagreement exists in every country over what is or is not in "the national interest," the term is as often invoked to justify isolationist and pacifistic policies as to justify interventionist or warlike policies. It has been posited that the term is a euphemism used by powerful countries for geopolitical aims such as nonrenewable natural resources for energy independencyterritorial expansionism and precious metals in smaller countries.For example, Trump is evidently applying the theory not only to national-security issues with adversaries but even in trade negotiations with allies: last year Trump reportedly ordered the U.S.
Debating the issues: China, Russia, Iran, National Security, Defense, War & Peace, International Relations & U.S.
Politics. Realism is our guide. national interest public interest international relations political ideologies foreign policy overseas item: Summary The concept of the 'national interest' is an ever-present feature of contemporary diplomatic discourse, and has been widely analysed by historians and political scientists.
This is the first systematic and critical analysis of the concept of national interest from the perspective of contemporary theories of International Relations, including realist, Marxist, anarchist, liberal, English School and constructivist perspectives.
For these analysts, in other words, the national interest is whatever the officials of a nation seek to preserve and enhance. As two leading spokesmen for this approach put it, “The national interest is what the nation, i.e., the decision-maker, decides it is” (Furniss & Snyder , p.
17). In the essay, the national interest is first presented as a necessary corrective to what Morgenthau had already characterized in Scientific Man vs. Power Politics as legalism, moralism, and sentimentalism in American politics, and as a more effective guide to foreign .