Weight-related arthropathies that impair physical activity; or Obesity-related psychosocial distress. Physician-supervised nutrition and exercise program: Member has participated in physician-supervised nutrition and exercise program including dietician consultation, low calorie diet, increased physical activity, and behavioral modificationdocumented in the medical record at each visit. This physician-supervised nutrition and exercise program must meet all of the following criteria Member's participation in a physician-supervised nutrition and exercise program must be documented in the medical record by an attending physician who supervised the member's participation.
Summary Reducing morbidity and mortality related to overweight and obesity is a public health priority. Various interventions in school and worksite settings aim to maintain or achieve healthy weight.
To identify effective strategies for weight control that can be implemented in these settings, the Task Force on Community Preventive Services Task Force has conducted systematic reviews of the evidence on nutrition, physical activity, combinations of these interventions, and other behavioral interventions e.
The Task Force recommends multicomponent interventions that include nutrition and physical activity including strategies such as providing nutrition education or dietary prescription, physical activity prescription or group activity, and behavioral skills development and training to control overweight and obesity among adults in worksite settings.
The Task Force determined that insufficient evidence existed to determine the effectiveness of combination nutrition and physical activity interventions to prevent or reduce overweight and obesity in school settings because of the limited number of qualifying studies reporting noncomparable outcomes.
This report describes the methods used in these systematic reviews; provides additional information regarding these recommendations; and cites sources for full reviews containing details regarding applicability, other benefits and harms, barriers to implementation, research gaps, and economic data when available regarding interventions.
Overall, the prevalence of childhood overweight has tripled over the previous 2 decades 4and the prevalence of overweight among certain ethnic minority groups is even higher.
Obesity is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease; diabetes; certain forms of cancer, depression, discrimination and weight-related bias; and various other physical, psychological, and social morbidities A linear relation was reported between BMI and mortality risk based on an observational cohort of approximately 1 million persons followed for 14 years Healthy People objectives pertinent to overweight and obesity Models of health for obesity intervention and control have been documented Table 1 Interventions in school and worksite settings to reduce overweight and obesity might affect multiple objectives.
School and worksite settings are both locations where children or adults spend substantial time, and these settings provide ample opportunities for nutrition and physical activity interventions. A substantial proportion of daily calories are consumed in these settings, and both sites frequently have existing facilities that can support regular physical activity among students and employees, potentially reducing obesity and overweight in addition to providing other benefits.
School sites offer multiple advantages for implementation of efforts to prevent and control overweight by affording continuous and intensive contact with the majority of children and adolescents in the United States School programs can capitalize on existing although often constrained resources and tools to develop student knowledge, attitudes, and skills essential for healthy lifestyles.
School curricula, personnel, policy interventions, and changes in the physical environment e. Guide to Community Preventive Services Community Guide recommendations for increasing physical activity include recommendations applicable to schools Similar to schools, worksites allow access to employees in a controlled environment through existing channels of communication and social support networks.
Opportunities for environmental and policy change to foster healthy dietary practices and increase activity 18 are readily available.
For example, worksites can provide easier access to stairwells than to elevators and adopt policies that provide employees with exercise breaks during working hours.
The incentive for ongoing support of weight maintenance and other health promoting activities in worksites is substantial, given that such programs might translate into cost savings for employers 19, Introduction The Task Force on Community Preventive Services Task Force leads work on the Community Guide, a resource that includes multiple systematic reviews, each focusing on a public health topic.
Community Guide development is supported by the U. This report is one in the series of systematic reviews developed for the Community Guide; it provides an overview of the process used by the Task Force to select and review evidence and summarizes recommendations regarding interventions to prevent or control overweight and obesity.
This report provides guidance to state and local health departments, state and local education agencies and school systems, government policymakers, employers, and others interested in or responsible for reducing the prevalence of overweight and obesity.
A full report on the recommendations including discussions of applicability; additional benefits; potential harms; existing barriers to implementation; costs, cost benefit, and cost effectiveness of the interventions; and remaining research questions and additional information concerning the review findings are scheduled for publication on the Community Guide website http: The report will include interventions in community and health-care system settings and those in school and worksite settings.
The review of the evidence on effectiveness of community approaches to reducing overweight and obesity in school and worksite settings complements reviews by the U. The Clinical Guide provides information on 1 screening and interventions for childhood overweight 212 effectiveness of routine counseling to promote physical activity in primary care settings 223 behavioral counseling to promote a healthy diet 23and 4 screening and counseling of adults for obesity and overweight Detailed information regarding the Clinical Guide is available http: Both the Clinical Guide and the Community Guide present evidence on effectiveness for options for weight control across primary care and community settings.
Additional information regarding the Task Force and the Community Guide and links to published reports are available http: Methods The methods used by the Community Guide for conducting systematic reviews and linking evidence to recommendations have been described For each setting in which a review of interventions to prevent overweight and obesity was completed, the review team developed an analytic framework to indicate the relation of interventions to relevant intermediate outcomes e.
In this review, the review team considered only weight-related variables as recommendation outcome measures, indicating intermediate outcomes e. In the school setting, determination of a meaningful weight change in studies of children was assessed based on the intervention goal and study population characteristics on a study-by-study basis.
Among adults in worksite settings, a 4-pound minimum weight loss standard was used as a measure of success, based on expert consensus and supporting studies indicating that modest weight loss is associated with improvements in lipid profiles 26metabolic syndrome 27and hypertension 28 and might be of particular benefit to persons with visceral overweight or obesity i.
To be considered for inclusion in the reviews of effectiveness, studies had to include multiple characteristics.Topic-based listing of CDC Features. Get Email Updates.
To receive email updates about this page, enter your email address. intervention in North India An example of a school-based childhood obesity prevention intervention in Beijing, China The high prevalence of overweight and obesity has serious health consequences.
Raised body mass.. physical activity Health.. POPULATION-BASED APPROACHES. 1. Introduction.
According to World Health Organization's report, > 13% of the world population are obese, which is a doubling over the last 35 kaja-net.com the world's billion people, 25% are overweight or obese, > 50 million children at the age of 5 are obese, and and million men and woman are obese, kaja-net.com Europe, the EU Action Plan on Childhood Obesity – Obesity corresponds to an abnormal accumulation of adipose tissue within the body.
According to World Health Organization (WHO), approximately 35% of the world population is estimated to be overweight (body mass index, BMI 25–30 kg/m 2) or obese (BMI > 30 kg/m 2).As mentioned above, it is widely known that obese persons exhibit a subclinical chronic state of inflammation leading to multiple.
Animation. Obesity In A Large Social Network. () The prevalence of obesity has increased from 23% to 31% over the recent past in the United States, and 66% of adults are overweight. 1,2. Oct 10, · Keywords: Health belief model, obesity, physical activity, physical education program.
INTRODUCTION. Obesity is an important factor underlying chronic diseases, and health workers need to act to deal with it. The intervention and time effect were asses on components of PA constructs.