Europe and the Islamic lands had multiple points of contact during the Middle Ages. The main points of transmission of Islamic knowledge to Europe lay in Sicily and in Spainparticularly in Toledo with Gerard of Cremone—, following the conquest of the city by Spanish Christians in
Eastern Europe Islam is the second largest religion in Europe today. In spite of periodic persecution and discrimination, Islam seems to be not only surviving but steadily growing in numbers of converts and influence.
With the Serbian aggression against Bosnia-Herzegovina, a Muslim country, interest by people is growing in learning about Islam and Muslims. This article is a review and history of the general situation of the Muslims of Europe today.
Due to manpower shortages and industrial growth in Western Europe after the Second World War, substantial numbers of Muslims migrated to Western Europe. These Muslims kept their cultural, religious and ethnic links with their mother countries.
Today these Muslims and their descendants, along with a growing number of native people who are accepting Islam have made the Muslim population the second largest in many parts of Europe.
The Muslim community of these countries need separate articles to cover their growing social, cultural, and economic role in Western Europe. Population Reliable figures on the Muslim population in Western Europe are not available.
However, it is believed that an estimated 10 million Muslims live in Western Europe today. France, Germany, and Britain have the largest Muslim populations.
Muslim sources estimate that both France and Germany have about three million Muslims each, while Britain is said to Islam and western europe about two million.
By the year 2, Muslims are expected to make up more than 10 percent of the French population. Large numbers of Europeans have converted to Islam in the last two decades.
Their actual number remains unknown. The majority of these conversions have been made through the efforts of different ways or Islamic Sufi brotherhood and the Darqawiyahs which claim a link with the Arab-Moroccan city of Fez. Most of the Darqawi converts are drawn from the solid professional middle class and seek a return to the early traditions of Islam.
European converts to Islam have included a number of prominent figures, especially in the academic life.
This group includes Baron Omar Ehrenfels, the Austrian anthropologist d. Several countries in Western Europe have recognized the Muslim feasts and holidays.
Broadcast time has also been allowed to Muslims in France and some other countries.
Muslims and Islam are still treated unfairly in the media. Any attempt by a Muslim society to make Islam as its foundation of life is seen as a challenge to western civilization and is immediately labeled as fundamentalist or terrorist.
Today, from Greece to Spain a new awakening is taking shape in forms of new institutions and projects. The establishment of the Muslim parliament of Britain is an indication of a new generation of Muslims confident and mature, resolute and strong.
Italy Let us look at the history of the Muslims in Sicily. The Muslims arrived in the early 9th century - the Muslims left their imprint in the year rule of the Island of Sicily, the largest island in the Mediterranean.
All around the land was dotted with place names of Arab origin. Several hundred hamlets and towns have names derived from Arabic.
For example, Baida is the Arabic bayda white ; Alcamo, al-Kamuk a fort named after an Arab leader ; Bagheria, babariya place by the sea ; and Marsala, marsa Allah the harbor of God.
Besides place names, a good number of Sicilian words have Arabic origins as bbazzariari to sell cheaply from the Arabic bazar, giubba jacket from the Arabic jubba and zecca, sikka mint.
In the Muslim era, agriculture flourished as it never had before. The Arabs introduced citrus fruits and cultivated them on a large scale.
Lemon Italian limuni from the Arabic limun and orange aranciu from naranja orchards were to be found in all parts of the Island.
Today they are still widespread, their flowers carrying an Arabic name, zagara, originally zahr, their aromas hovering over every path and road. From the repertoire of plants found in their homelands, the Muslims also brought with them buckwheat, brush palm, carob, cotton, gutun, jasmine, spinach, sugar, saffron, sumac, tarragon and raisins.
The manufacture of silk and the refining of sugar became thriving industries and these later spread to the remainder of Italy and beyond. To increase the yields of their fields and gardens, the Muslims extended the ancient irrigation works they had found on the island and built a vast number of reservoirs and water towers, many of which survive to this day.
In the field of Sicilian culinary art the Muslims had a profound effect. The rich foods of the Middle East, candied fruits and stuffed vegetables, new methods of preserving food, the drying of fruits and vegetables and the art of distillation, were some of the contributions made by the Arabs to the Sicilian kitchen.
They are more spicy and sweeter than those of mainland - even pasta is made piquant. Dessert-making is, perhaps, the most important contribution made to the Sicilian cuisine by the Arabs. When the Muslims introduced sugar to the island they made possible a whole series of desserts. Sweets made from almonds, and the making of ice cream and sherbet were introduced into Sicily and spread to the remainder of Italy and so on to the whole of Europe.Aug 02, · Pew Research Center’s three scenarios projecting the future size of the Muslim population in Europe reflect uncertainty about future migration flows due to political and social conditions outside of Europe, as well as shifting immigration policies in the region.
Most Christians in Western Europe today are non-practicing, but Christian identity still remains a meaningful religious, social and cultural marker, according to a new Pew Research Center survey of 15 countries in Western Europe.
In addition to religious beliefs and practices, the survey explores. He is the author of Muslims in Western Europe (3rd edition, Edinburgh University Press, ), and editor of a number of recent books, including Islam in Denmark: The Challenge of Diversity () and Yearbook of Muslims in Europe (from ).
Less than 2 percent of all politically motivated acts of violence committed in Europe are carried out by kaja-net.com, the media narrative of a crisis with "radical Islam" and "radicalised Muslims.
One of the famous “cross-over” Islamic personalities recognized by both popular Western culture and traditional Islam is former singer-songwriter “Cat” Stevens, who is a respected leader in Britain’s Islamic .
ISLAM (THROUGH THE EYES OF WESTERN MEDIA) By Jasmine Bhangoo The worldwide Islamic revival of the s and the 11 September attacks on the United States have prompted many to predict that the two cultures are on a major collision kaja-net.com is the fastest growing religion in the West.
Nevertheless, the West has many stereotypes and misconceptions about Islam that are due to .