This period saw the transition from a relatively rigid system of legal proofs which predetermined when there was sufficient evidence for a condemnation, to a system based on the free evaluation of the evidence by either professional judges or lay jurors. It is the central contention of this article that the reform of the criminal law of evidence can, to an important extent, be explained by two larger underlying ideological changes. These new ideas derived from a change in the epistemological and the political-constitutional discourses between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. Recht und Macht in Verfahren gegen Hexen — Zugleich eine Untersuchung zur Entstehung des Inquisitionsprozesses This article examines the reasons, which led to the development and the ending of witch trials in the Holy Roman Empire.
South African Orientation Identification. South Africa is the only nation-state named after its geographic location; there was a general agreement not to change the name after the establishment of a constitutional nonracial democracy in The country came into being through the Act of Union that united two British colonies and two independent republics into the Union of South Africa.
After the establishment of the first colonial outpost of the Dutch East India Company at Cape Town inSouth Africa became a society officially divided into colonizer and native, white and nonwhite, citizen and subject, employed and indentured, free and slave.
The result was a fragmented national identity symbolized and implemented by the white minority government's policy of racial separation. Economic status has paralleled political and social segregation and inequality, with the black African, mixed-race "Coloured"and Indian and Pakistani "Asian" population groups experiencing dispossession and a lack of legal rights.
Since the first nonracial elections inthe ruling African National Congress ANC has attempted to overcome this legacy and create unified national loyalties on the basis of equal legal status and an equitable allocation of resources.
South Africa has an area ofsquare miles 1, square kilometers.
It lies at the southern end of the African continent, bordered on the north by Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and Swaziland; on the east and south by the Indian Ocean; and on the west by the Atlantic Ocean.
The independent country of Lesotho lies in the middle of east central South Africa. Among the prominent features of the topography is a plateau that covers almost two thirds of the center of the country. The plateau complex rises toward the southeast, where it climaxes in the Drakensberg range, part of an escarpment that separates the plateau from the coastal areas.
The Drakensburg includes Champagne Castle, the highest peak in the country. The larger portion of the plateau is known as the highveld, which ends in the north in the gold-bearing Witwatersrand, a long, rocky ridge that includes the financial capital and largest city, Johannesburg.
The region north of the Witwatersrand, called the bushveld, slopes downward from east to west toward the Limpopo River, which forms the international border. The western section of the plateau, the middleveld, also descends towards the west and varies in elevation between the highveld and bushveld.
Between the Drakensburg and the eastern and southern coastline, the land descends to the sea. Toward the eastern coast there is an interior belt of green, hilly country that contains the Cape and Natal midlands.
Nearer the coast there is a low-lying plain called the eastern lowveld. Southwest of the plateau the country becomes progressively more arid, giving way to the stony desert of the Great Karroo, bordered on the east by the lower, better watered plateau of the Little Karroo.
Separating the dry southern interior from the sandy littoral of the southern coast and West Cape is another range, the Langeberg. On the southwest coast is Table Mountain, with Cape Town, the "Mother City," set in its base, and the coastal plain of the Cape Peninsula tailing off to the south.
The southern most point in Africa, Cape Agulhas, lies sixty miles to the east. South Africa also includes part of the Kalahari Desert in the northwest and a section of the Namib Desert in the west.
The chief rivers, crossing the country from west to east, are the Limpopo, Vaal, and Orange, which are not navigable but are useful for irrigation. A major new water source was created by the damming of the Orange and the Malibamatso below their sources in the Lesotho Drakensburg.
The population numbers approximately forty million, comprised of eight officially recognized Bantu-speaking groups; white Afrikaners descended from Dutch, French, and German settlers who speak Afrikaans, a variety of Dutch; English-speaking descendants of British colonists; a mixed-race population that speaks Afrikaans or English; and an immigrant Indian population that speaks primarily Tamil and Urdu.
A small remnant of Khoi and San aboriginal populations lives in the extreme northwest. The largest language group, the Zulu, numbers about nine million but does not represent a dominant ethnic grouping. Black Africans make up about seventy-seven percent of the population, whites about eleven percent, Coloureds about eight percent, Indians over two percent, and other minorities less than two percent.
Most South Africans live in urban areas, with twenty percent of the population residing in the central province of Gauteng, which contains Johannesburg, the surrounding industrial towns, and Pretoria, the administrative capital.
Other major urban centers include Durban, a busy port on the central east coast; Cape Town, a ship refitting, wine, and tourist center; and Port Elizabeth, an industrial and manufacturing city on the eastern Cape coast. During the s, urban centers received immigration from other sub-Saharan African countries, and these immigrants are active in small-scale urban commercial ventures.
South Africa has eleven official languages, a measure that was included in the constitution to equalize the status of Bantu languages with Afrikaans, which under the white minority government had been the official language along with English.
Afrikaans is still the most widely used language in everyday conversation, while English dominates in commerce, education, law, government, formal communication, and the media. English is becoming a lingua franca of the country, but strong attachments to ethnic, regional, and community linguistic traditions remain, supported by radio and television programming in all the nation's languages.
Linguistic subnationalism among ethnic groups such as the Afrikaners remains an important feature of political life. The nation's racially, ethnically, and politically divided history has produced national and subnational symbols that still function as symbols of the country, and others symbols that are accepted only by certain groups.
The monuments to white settler conquest and political dominance, such as the Afrikaner Voortrekker "pioneer" Monument in Pretoria and the Rhodes Monument honoring the British colonial empire builder and Cape prime minister Cecil Rhodes, remain sectarian symbols.Portuguese Colonies In Africa Essay Before the s most African societies were independent of European rule.
With particular reference to Africa south of the Sahara, colonial rule was confined to coastal patches and the Cape region, the latter being home to Anglo-Boer political rivalry.
- The scramble for Africa is a significant moment in world history that demonstrated the beginning of a great transformation for the Africans. The increase of European claims of African territories during the New Imperialism period and reflected Europe’s economic, social, and military evolution.
This shows how in some cases European presence in Africa brought modern technology and helped modernize their culture. Europeans also introduced new and improved school systems, roads, railways, canals, bridges, and in some cases, provided law and order, .
The scramble for Africa represents the most thorough and systematic process of colonialism in world history. The European colonial powers managed to conquer and control almost the entire continent of Africa in a short, twenty-five year period from about to - The scramble for Africa is a significant moment in world history that demonstrated the beginning of a great transformation for the Africans.
The increase of European claims of African territories during the New Imperialism period and reflected Europe’s economic, social, and military evolution. Introduction. The study of African history as an independent and autonomous focus of scholarship is a recent development.
Until the late colonial period, it was widely believed among Western historians that Africa, south of the Sahara, had no “civilization” and thus no history.