The possibilities of artifact are endless: Consider how this artifact has made an impact to its audience, based on its purpose.
Those that exist by nature have their origin in themselves, whereas those that exist by craft have their origin in the craftsperson—specifically, in the form of the thing as it exists in the mind of the maker.
Both Aristotle and his contemporary descendants are primarily concerned to distinguish artifacts from objects that occur naturally, without any human intervention.
On this standard definition, artifacts must satisfy three conditions. They must be intentionally produced, thus ruling out unintended by-products of intentional actions, such as the shavings that result from woodcarving, as well as all Artifact speeches occurring objects, such as salamanders and stars.
They must involve modification of materials, thus ruling out naturally occurring objects even when used intentionally for Artifact speeches purpose, such as sticks thrown to amuse your dog. And they must be produced for a purpose.
This rules out intentionally modified objects that are nevertheless not intended to accomplish any further goal, such as the scraps produced when you intentionally, but for no particular reason, tear up a piece of paper before throwing it away. Presumably, then, these three conditions are intended to be individually necessary and jointly sufficient to distinguish artifacts from naturally occurring objects.
Three remarks about this definition are in order. First, it does not rule out the possibility that at least some things made by non-human animals are artifacts. Spider webs do have a purpose, for instance, and are clearly made rather than naturally occurring.
But we may hesitate to attribute intention to the spiders, given the instinctive and rigid nature of their web-weaving behavior. Beavers, on the other hand, might be thought to intentionally construct dams in order to create ponds.
This is an important area of research in ethology and comparative psychology. However, for the purposes of this article we will focus on human artifacts. Second, many things we would not ordinarily label as artifacts in ordinary English might nevertheless count under this definition.
But objects made intentionally for a purpose include many that are ephemeral or abstract. Arguably, then, musical performances Dipert and belief systems Hilpinen are artifacts. Simon Evnine argues that actions, in general, qualify as artifacts, although as artifactual events rather than artifactual objects.
Finally, this definition is peculiar to philosophers Hilpinen ; Dipert In other disciplines the concern is more to investigate cognition and behavior involving objects quite generally, without carving out a domain of artifacts having special ontological status.
Psychologists, for instance, are interested in how children develop categorizations of things, including artifacts as opposed to non-artifacts. Archaeologists and anthropologists, on the other hand, are concerned with the roles objects play in cultural processes quite generally.
Similarly, a sharp-edged shell used without modification as a hide scraper is just as important as the purpose-made flint scraper for understanding the culture in question. As the examples above demonstrate, the making need not be intentional and the use need not involve modification of the object used.
And if any objects of cultural significance are devoid of purpose or function, that condition of the philosophical definition, too, would fall by the wayside. Consequently, as the anthropologist Daniel Miller notes: Along all three definitional dimensions we encounter a continuum of cases Grandy ; Sperber Paths, for example, are often created unintentionally just in virtue of people repeatedly traveling along the same straight line between points A and B—your kitchen and your vegetable garden, say.
But what is the point of saying that such a path is not an artifact, whereas an identical one that was created intentionally by exactly the same process is? Moreover, what would it take to make the erstwhile non-artifactual path into an artifact?
Would it be enough to notice and approve it? Or would I have to intentionally maintain it, by sweeping it clean of leaves, for instance? Similar difficulties arise with regard to modification, which is clearly a matter of degree.
If I bring an attractive shell home from a walk on the beach and put it to use as a paperweight, does the transport count as modification? If not, would washing the shell before using it be enough? Or polishing it to bring out the color of its markings?
A further complication is that many uses to which naturally occurring objects are put cause modifications. At what point did it first count as modified, since even the first strike would break off some fragments?
Or do these use-induced modifications not count for satisfying the definition at all?
If not, why not?In the simplest terms, a rhetorical artifact is a collection of symbols that is meaningful in a culture. An artifact is rhetorical to the extent that the symbols it incorporates convey a . The purpose of this speech is to increase audience knowledge of a cultural or subcultural artifact, practice, tradition, or festival.
This is also your first major practiced speech. Your basic concerns should focus on managing your nervousness, disciplining your .
In one of the most controversial speeches ever delivered in Congress, Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts risked his reputation and career by urging compromise on issues related to slavery in order to preserve the Union. His eloquent plea was persuasive in effecting passage of the compromise measures, including the Fugitive Slave Law, but it angered his antislavery constituents.
No amount of instructions in writing the rhetorical critical essay can substitute for a clear, creative writing style and meticulous research and citation. Nor can these instructions provide you with the rhetorician's gold, an idea about how a given rhetorical artifact works as a strategy.
Persuasive Speech Outline Essay Words | 3 Pages. Margarita Torres Informative Speech Outline Title: “Zumba!” General purpose: To persuade Specific purpose: After listening to my speech, audience members will try Zumba fitness as a way to exercise.
Part of starting a informative speech will be knowing what an informative speech is.
The informative speech is giving audience completely new knowledge, skills, or understanding about a topic. as well increases current knowledge, skills, or understanding.
Most informative speeches also describe, explain, or .