Parents and teachers should be careful not to minimize these behaviors in children. What can be done if a child shows violent behavior? Whenever a parent or other adult is concerned, they should immediately arrange for a comprehensive evaluation by a qualified mental health professional. Early treatment by a professional can often help.
Three organizations reported national data, and two focused on statistics from Punjab province and Lahore city. However, these organizations made it clear that these data did not represent actual numbers of such incidents in Pakistan because of underreporting.
Reasons, such as family honour, concepts of morality, and cultural taboos, were major reasons for underreporting. The three national reports indicated a higher proportion of boys in those reportedly abused, while the two reports from Punjab reported a higher proportion of girls.
Using a reference national population children aged less than 15 years as of latest census available for the area of study, rates of annual incidence have been generated. The reported annual incidence of violence against children ranged from 1. The categories—physical and sexual abuses—used in these reports included abduction, rape, sodomy, torture, or murder against both boys and girls.
This review showed that there is some, though limited literature published or unpublished on violence against children in Pakistan. The literature is mostly focused on the causes and, in some cases, the consequences of child abuse. Most studies and reports have documented child labour, child sexual abuse, and fatal violence, whereas neglect or other non-physical forms of violence have not been captured.
Most work was of observational and descriptive nature with data collected through survey methods and interviews with small sample sizes. The time periods of reporting also vary, and methodological details are often not available in the papers. The duration of reporting differs in all cases from seven months to over a one year period.
The method of collecting such cases also differed from police reports to special surveillance of newspaper-reported cases.
The findings reflect the need for more and better-quality information on violence against children in Pakistan. All studies in this review present definitions of violence against children that are derived from the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child This common understanding is very welcome and is important because it allows a universal approach with flexibility to address sociocultural contexts.
Although child abuse per se can be defined universally, the diverse types of abuse, their existence in different societies, and more importantly interventions for its prevention and control need to focus on the specific cultural contexts within each country.
Pakistan presents a specific set of evolving conservative and traditional social structures, which are reflected in the literature. This review identifies that children in Pakistan experience numerous risk factors in their exposure to the outside world and the quality of care provided by their immediate families.
Cultural and traditional norms that foster gender discrimination and under-value the girl child contribute to high rates of overall illiteracy, low nutritional status, and lack of access to health and development opportunities in life This represents a hostile macro context, which leads to an increased risk of violence against children rape, human trafficking, and sexual exploitation.
Corporal punishment and the slow process of justice for children who come in contact with the law are another form of neglect at the institutional and societal levels. Dimensions of household neglect, such as improper supervision, abandonment, and educational deprivation, have not been elaborated in the reviewed papers.
The literature review also explored the causes of child labour and its impact on children, their families, and overall human development. There is a strong qualitative association between poverty and related factors family size, unemployment with child labour in Pakistan.
Studies on child labour indicate that, for these children, living in the cycle of a poor large family with unemployed parents creates the conditions in which they have to work.
Illiteracy, lack of educational opportunities, and weak legal structures then further disadvantage these children, making them the lowest paid workers in the country. Working children then experience harsh working conditions, lack of food and rest, and no play which then disproportionately affect their health.
Studies documented children reporting complaints of skin and eye infections, problems relating to the digestive system, headaches, dizziness, asthma, body aches, stress, and depression.
These health outcomes were not specifically diagnosed in the studies nor were the presence of other health consequences, such as suicide, studied. In addition to putting children in physical danger, work reduces their chances of getting an education.
Studies that provided quantitative data on physical and sexual abuses of children are challenging to interpret. Studies relied on cases of abuse that were either reported in newspapers or also reviewed police records 16 Newspapers have been used as sources of health data in Pakistan and for reporting stigmatized events more frequently than the police This distribution of reported cases by gender provided an inconsistent pattern across the studies reviewed here.
What is clear is that both girls and boys are victims in Pakistan. The usual reason given for not reporting sex-related crimes is that it has a huge social stigma attached to it, not only for the victim but also for the victim's family. Talking about sex in the conservative Pakistani society is taboo; nevertheless, sexual violation and exploitation of children is happening.
It is important that this problem is not just acknowledged, but also explored in terms of its magnitude and impact, and national-level data inform policies and strategies for prevention and control. The concept of post-event care and victim support for child victims barely exists in Pakistan.
Non-governmental organizations have initiated limited support services in some urban parts of the country but there are no data to determine either their accessibility or their effectiveness.
Moreover, there are no national centres or publicly-subsidized services of this type across the nation. Our review indicates that weak legislation on elementary education, poor labour laws, and corporal punishment are also a determinant of an increasingly complex situation within which violence against children is perpetrated.
This goes beyond health, economics, and development to become a political question; a continued lack of political will is, thus, only going to distance the children of Pakistan from realizing their potential.of choice among children and young adults.
As with any new media enjoyed by youth, but relatively unused by elders, myriad Media violence and its effect on aggression: Assess-ing the scientiﬁc evidence. INTRODUCTION TO THE SPECIAL ISSUE Exposure to violence in media, including television, movies, music, and video games, represents a significant risk to the health of children and adolescents.
Extensive research evidence indicates that media violence can contribute to aggressive behavior, desensitization to violence, nightmares, and.
Introduction According to the Merriam-Webster online dictionary, Violence is the exertion of physical force so as to injure or abuse. Violence is often a behavioral response that children are taught to use in order to achieve their goals.
Children's exposure to domestic and family violence has become a prominent policy issue comparatively recently. In the past two decades, mounting empirical evidence about the extent to which children are exposed to domestic and family violence, and the effect this has on their development has created impetus for policy responses to this issue (Humphreys, ; Richards, ).
INTRODUCTION. The World Report on Violence and Health, released by the World Health Organization (WHO), presented the issue of violence against children as a public-health problem that has a global magnitude. In the same year (), Hadi A. Child abuse among working children in rural Bangladesh: prevalence and determinants.
Public Health. Essay Domestic Violence Introduction Domestic Violence Against Women is a global issue reaching across national boundaries as well as socio-economic, cultural, racial and class distinctions.
It is a problem without frontiers.