The ACL is a tough band of tissue joining the thigh bone to the shin bone at the knee joint. It runs diagonally through the inside of the knee and gives the knee joint stability.
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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament ACL is one of the most devastating and frequent injuries of the knee.
Surgical reconstruction is the current standard of care for treatment of ACL injuries in active patients. The widespread adoption of ACL reconstruction over primary repair was based on early perception of the limited healing capacity of the ACL. Although the majority of ACL reconstruction surgeries successfully restore gross joint stability, post-traumatic osteoarthritis is commonplace following these injuries, even with ACL reconstruction.
The development of new techniques to limit the long-term clinical sequelae associated with ACL reconstruction has been the main focus of research over the past decades.
The improved knowledge of healing, along with recent advances in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, has resulted in the discovery of novel biologically augmented ACL-repair techniques that have satisfactory outcomes in preclinical studies.
This instructional review provides a summary of the latest advances made in ACL repair. Bone Joint Res ;3: Anterior cruciate ligament, Injury, Repair Introduction Dynamic knee stability is affected by both passive ligamentous and active neuromuscular joint restraints.
Among the contributors to knee joint stability, the anterior cruciate ligament ACL has long been considered the primary passive restraint to anterior translation of the tibia with respect to the femur.
Injuries to the ACL are one of the most common and devastating knee injuries mainly sustained as a result of sports participation. ACL reconstruction has remained the gold standard of care for ACL injuries, especially for young individuals and athletes who aim to return to high-level sporting activities.
The increased number of recently published pilot clinical and basic research studies has prompted our current review of the literature, exploring the recent knowledge and indications for clinical use of these biologically enhanced techniques.
In this article, we present the latest research on the biology of ACL healing and repair supplemented by a brief overview of ACL injury epidemiology, mechanism and current standard of care.
Future work in this area may lead to the improvement of the current techniques along with development of novel approaches to treat this critical injury with enhanced short-term and long-term outcomes.
Search strategy and selection criteria For the purpose of this literature review, peer-reviewed journals were consulted and the findings summarised to provide an understanding of the information gained from the current literature.
The last search was undertaken on September 15 The following search terms were used: Searches were repeated using the keywords as MeSH terms as well.
The search algorithm was intentionally general to maximise return. In addition to the online searches, the bibliographies of the included studies were reviewed to identify additional publications. No date limits were considered for the publications on ACL healing and repair.
However, literature covering the injury epidemiology, mechanism and surgical reconstruction were deemed either seminal published works or publications after The citations identified from the searches were combined and duplicates excluded.
All in vivo and in vitro studies that focused on ACL repair following injury, not reconstruction, were considered. All titles resulting from the search criteria were reviewed and those that clearly referred to a topic other than the focus of current review were excluded.
All case reports and expert opinions were excluded. Abstracts were also reviewed to confirm inclusion eligibility.
Finally, full texts were obtained for the eligible studies for final review. ACL injury epidemiology The ACL is one of the most frequently injured ligaments of the knee, with a prevalence estimated to be 1 in in the United States greater than cases annually.Anterior crutiate ligament (ACL) injuries have become the most common injury in the knee to female athletes.
Introduction Kinesiology, often known as human kinetics, is the study of principles of anatomy, physiology, and mechanics in relation to human movements. This field of study is a regulated health profession that focuses on. One of the more common injuries that studies seem to focus more of their attention on is Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injuries.
Women seem to be more susceptible than men to these ACL injuries because of hormonal differences, structural differences, musculature differences, and mechanical differences (Hirst, Armeau & Parish, ). INTRODUCTION Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is the stronger of the two test, and the anterior and posterior drawer test for integrity of cruciate ligaments.
The collateral ligaments were injuries and advised to remove the brace for range of motion. Feb 01, · Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most devastating and frequent injuries of the knee.
Surgical reconstruction is the current standard of care for treatment of ACL injuries in active patients. The widespread adoption of ACL reconstruction over primary repair was based on.
Abstract Introduction: Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is the main posterior stabilizer of the knee. The PCL also plays a role as a central axis controlling and imparting rotational stability to. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Anatomy & Physiology.
The ACL originates from the medial and anterior aspect of the tibial plateau and runs superiorly, laterally, and posteriorly toward its .